July 26, 1967 — Allon Plan Presented
Yigal Allon, a member of the Israeli government and a retired general, presents a strategic proposal for Israel’s retention of the Jordan Valley after capturing the West Bank during the war in June 1967. What becomes known as the Allon Plan calls for a series of settlements and military installations to serve as a buffer against an attack from east of the Jordan River. The plan’s other key points include peace with the Arabs, the preservation of Israeli security, the maintenance of a Jewish majority in the state of Israel and the opportunity for Palestinian independence.
July 27, 1656 — Spinoza Excommunicated
The Amsterdam Jewish community excommunicates 23-year-old Baruch Spinoza after he refuses to take a stipend in exchange for being silent about his views on Judaism. Particularly offensive to communal leaders are his questioning of the Torah’s divine nature, his denial of the immortality of the soul and his rejection of a providential God. Spinoza nonetheless becomes one of the most influential philosophers of the European Enlightenment.
July 28, 1845 — Reform Rabbinical Conference Ends
A two-week assembly in Frankfurt-am-Main of Reform rabbis ends after the 31 rabbis unanimously agree to remove all prayers calling for a return to Israel. The implication is that Judaism is a religion, not a nationality. The rabbis, who decided in a previous assembly that most of the service could be conducted in German instead of Hebrew, see the Diaspora as an essential part of Jews’ mission to spread God’s message worldwide.
July 29, 1849 — Max Nordau Born
Max Nordau is born Simon Maximilian Sudfield to an Orthodox Jewish family in Pest, Hungary. He breaks from the family tradition of becoming rabbis, scholars and community leaders when he moves to Berlin, changes his name, earns a medical degree, works as a journalist and becomes a prominent social theorist. Events such as the Dreyfus Affair push Nordau to embrace Zionism. He drafts the Basel Plan, the blueprint adopted at the First Zionist Congress for a Jewish state in Palestine, and advocates the development of the “new Jew.”
July 30, 1980 — Jerusalem Basic Law Enacted
The Knesset passes the Basic Law: Jerusalem, enshrining the official Israeli position that a united Jerusalem is the capital of Israel among the set of laws holding constitutional authority. The U.N. Security Council responds Aug. 20 with Resolution 476, which rejects the law and urges U.N. members to move their embassies out of Jerusalem. Thirteen nations, most of them in Latin America, move their embassies to Tel Aviv.
July 31, 1988 — Hussein Disassociates From West Bank
Jordan’s King Hussein announces that he is giving up political claims to the West Bank, although he seeks to retain influence over Jerusalem. His announcement leaves the PLO to serve as the representative of the Arab residents of the area. King Abdullah I, Hussein’s grandfather, annexed the West Bank and East Jerusalem in 1950, but Jordan lost the territory in the June 1967 war.
Aug. 1, 1955 — First Residents Move Into Dimona
The development town of Dimona in Israel’s south welcomes its first residents, all of whom are recent arrivals from Morocco, as Israel tries to settle immigrants who have been housed in tent cities. All of Dimona’s early residents are Mizrahim (Jews from Arab countries), and although some work in the nearby Dead Sea Works potash plant, many must travel long distances to jobs. Dimona gains municipal status in 1969, when the population tops 24,000.
Items are provided by the Center for Israel Education.